C++ INTRODUCTION

C++ Introduction

  • C++ is a High Level, general-purpose, object-oriented Programming Language developed by Bjarne Stroustrup at bell labs in 1979.

  • C++ is an extension to c programming language. Initially, c++ called as 'c with classes'

  • In the 1983 name changed from "C with class" to "c++"

  • C++ is the one of the world's most popular programming language

Releases

  • In 1989 - First commercial release of c++

  • In 1998 - C++98 Standard

  • In 2003 - C++03 Standard

  • In 2011 - C++11 Standard

  • In 2014 - C++14 Standard

  • In 2017 - C++17 Standard

Features of C++

C++ has many features, some of them are,

1. Simple 

          C++ is simple to learn and understand because it is a combination of mathematical and English expressions. Even executable file is in machine code, no need to bother about it. It is easy to use because it has several libraries. Even you are new to programming language, you can understand easily by following some tutorial from start to end. If you have touch with other programming languages, you can learn c++ very fast.

2. Object-Oriented Programming

  • The main motive of c++ programming is to support object-oriented programming. Object-oriented programming is nothing but creating objects for the classes which has data and functions.

  • Class and Objects are the two main things in object-oriented programming.

  • Class is a template or blueprint for the objects. Object is an instance of a class.

    • Ex1: Fruit is a class. Mango, apple are the objects.

    • Ex2: Animal is a class. Tiger and Cat are the objects.

  • Object-oriented programming must follow the four concepts Polymorphism, Abstraction, Inheritance, Encapsulation.

3. Platform Dependent / Platform Independent

  • In c++, we will write the code in .cpp, .cxx files, we execute the code with the help of the compiler. After Executing the code file, the executable file will generate. By running the executable file, we will get output.

  • So in c++ two files are there, one is for writing code, the second one is the executable file.

  • The code file is platform-independent, which means you can write code in any platform like windows, Linux, Mac, and you can move that file to any operating-System then you can execute the file.

  • The executable file is platform-dependent, which means it is not possible to run a c++ executable file created on one platform into another platform.

4. Rich Library

          In programming language library is a collection of resources used by programs. C++ has several such libraries, which are useful to programmers while writing a code. So instead of developing code from scratch, developers can use libraries and reduces the time. So that the development of the project is fast​.

          There are C++ Standard Library headers, Some of them are,

                    <iostream>, <cmath>, <ctime>, <memory> etc.

5. Structured Programming Language

          Structured programming is also known as modular programming. Structured programming is nothing but dividing the whole program into smaller units and modules. So that it can easily understand. It is helpful for smaller programs, but it is not suitable for large programs, there is no reusability in structured programming. When you want to develop small programs, it is useful. C++ is both structural and object-oriented programming.

6. Memory Management

          C++ supports dynamic memory allocation, which means memory allocates at the runtime. It is the programmer responsibility to free the memory. Dynamic memory allocation reduces the use of memory as it is using memory when it is needed.

7. Pointers

          Pointers are the variables that store the address of other variables. In c++, we have normal variables and pointer variables. Pointer variables are useful to allocate the memory dynamically at the run time. 

Applications

  • Operating systems

  • Embedded systems

  • Graphical user interfaces 

  • Games

  • Data base softwares

  • Browsers

  • Banking applications

  • Compilers

  •  Libraries

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